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Publication - 1

Cultivation of Fruits and Vegetable crops at different altitude in East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh

The fruits and vegetables form an essential component of the human diet for the supplement of vital    carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The climatic conditions and topography of Arunachal Pradesh varies from level plains to alpine heights thereby providing congenial altitudinal variations and all types of agro climatic conditions suitable for cultivation of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate crops available.

The East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh lies approximately in between the latitudes 2656 and 2757 N and longitudes 9236 and 9324E. Its geographical area is 4134 Sq Km. The district is bounded by Papumpare and a part of Kurung Kumey in the East, West Kameng district in the west, Mac Mohan line and a part of Kurung Kumey district in the North and Sonitpur district of Assam in the South.

The district has been divided into three agro-ecological situations (AES) based on altitude, AES-1 (High altitude >1300m), AES -11 (Medium altitude 800-1300m) and AES-111 (Low altitude<800m).

The table below represents the three classifications according to elevation above the mean sea level (msl) with the blocks covered under them and also the % of geographical area of the district -:

Name of AES

Blocks Covered

% of Geographical area in the district

           AES-I :High altitude >1300m

                Bameng, Chayangtajo


      AES -II : Medium altitude 800-1300m

                Pipu, P/ Kessang, Bana


AES-III :Low altitude<800m  Seppa, Seijosa 8%

Because of the varied topography, different climatic conditions occur within a short distance. The district experiences heavy rainfall for nearly 6 to 7 months in a year and winter months are extremely cold. Average annual rainfall is 2834.98 cm.

The different crops that can be grown in the varied topography of the district are given below:


Name of AES


AES-I :High altitude >1300m

Temperate fruits like Apple, Cherry, walnut, chestnut, Pear, plum, Persimmon, apricot, kiwi, peach, straw berry

 AES -II : Medium altitude 800-1300m

Stone fruits like plum, pear, peach, Almond, Aonla, mango, banana, passion fruits.

AES-III :Low altitude<800m

Subtropical crops like pineapple, mango, ber, guava, citrus, banana, litchi, jackfruit, papaya, pomegranate, coconut.


Altitude above msl


Period of cultivation

         300m-800m mid hills                          






April - July

Bitter gourd

April - July



Garden pea


Tuber crops cassava


Turmeric, ginger




Sweet Potato,Tapioca June-Dec
Chilli June - Sept
Cabbage Aug - Sept
Cauliflower Mid Sept - End of Oct
Knoll Khol Mar - May

Compiled by:

Dr. Sanjoy Borthakur, Programme coordinator,

 Ms. Shahida Choudhury, SMS (Horti),

Mr. Binod Kailita, SMS (Agron)

For more details contact:      

Programme Coordinator ::

E mail:


Phone:   +913787223586, +919436837488



Integrated Management Of Important Insect pests Of Some Of the Field Crops In East Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh.

I. Rice

(a) Gundhi Bug (Leptocorisa Oratorious) :

Symptoms : It is the most serious pest of rice under upland and lowland condition. Both nymphs and adults suck juice during milky stage and turn them into chaffy grains. Black or Browns spots appear around the puncture made by the bugs. During severe infestation the yield loss may be around 55%.

Economic Threshold Level (ETL): The ETL for Gundhi Bug is one bug per hill.


1. Avoid staggered planting of rice

2. need based application of any of the following pesticides          

                  (i) Chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 0.05 % (2.5 ml/ltr)

                  (ii) Endosulfan 35 EC at 0.07% (2ml/ltr)

                  (iii) Malathion 50 EC at 0.1% (2ml/ltr)

3. During milking stage, use rotten crab in a plastic funnel

trap @ 100 Traps/ha which attracts and control (60%) Gundhi Bugs effectively.

 (b) Leaf Folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) :

Symptoms : The larvae rolls the leaf blade by fastening the edges and feed within by scraping mesophyll or the green matter. Feeding reduces productive leaf area that affects plant growth. High infestation often gives a sickly appearance to the field with white patches. Maximum infestation is seen after panicle initiation stage.

Economic Threshold Level (ETL)The ETL for the pest is 4% folded leaves.

Management :

                1. Early planting to minimize the incidence.

              2. Clean cultivation 

              3. Drain the field on alternate days or once in two days.

              4. Seedling root dip treatment in chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 10ml/10 ltr of water for overnight protect the crop from leaf folder.

              5. Spray Endosulfan 35 EC @ 2ml/ltr of water at 45 Days  after transplanting.

( c )  Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae):

 Symptoms : Infestation of the Gall midge starts in nursery and continues till maximum tillering stage of the crop. Maggot enters the stem and reaches apical point of the central shoot where it feeds and develops. Owing to its feeding, the central leaf of the attacked tiller is converted  into a shining tubular structure called silver shoot. Affected tiller does not produce any panicle. Infestation in early stages of crop induces profuse tillering and results in stunted plants.

Economic Threshold Level (ETL): The ETL for Gall midge is 5% Silver Shoot.

Management :

            1. Use of resistant cultivars viz., IR 36, Kunti, Shakti,    Suraksha

            2. Early planting in July

            3. Collect and destroy silver shoot.

            4. Parasitoid Platygaster oryzae is very effective against the  pest.

            5. Seedling root dipping in 0.05% Chlorpyriphos emulsion for one minute before planting.

( d) Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) :

Symptoms : The larvae enter the tiller to feed and cut central shoot at base and it dries off. These are called dead hearts in young plants. If the attack is after panicle initiation , the panicles dry off and become chaffy leaving white ears. The dead heart and white ears can be easily pulled out. Grain yield loss occurs upto 50%.

Economic Threshold Level (ETL) The ETL for the borer is 5% dead hearts during vegetative stage and 2% white ears during flowering.

Management :

     1. Use of resistant varieties viz., Vikas, Ratna, Saket

      2. Harvest the crop close to the ground and destroy stubbles to kill lar vae and deep ploughing in summer.

    3. Clip the tips of the seedlings to eliminate egg masses.

     4. Collect and destroy dead hearts and white ears.

   5. Use light traps to attract and kill the moths.

   6. Root dip treatrment in 0.05% Chlorpyriphos emulsion for a minute before planting.

   7. Need based application of Malathion 50 EC @ 0.1% (2ml/ltr)

II. Maize:

(a) Stem Borer ( Chilo partellus) :

Symptoms: Newly hatched larvae scrap the central leaves of the whorl and soon tunnel into the stem through the

whorl. The emerging leaves of the whorl show small pinholes and called as shot hole injury. Grown up larvae produce

bigger holes in the whorl leaves, the severe attack results in drying of central whorl of the plant, which is called dead

heart. The plants showing dead hearts do not show usual leaf injury symptoms, remain stunted in growth and no

flowering takes place. The larvae also damage the emerging tassels, silk and developing grains on the cobs and pupate

inside the stem. The major loss in grain yield is due to dead hearts and stunting of growth. This is the most serious pest

of maize and causes upto 70% damage.

Management :

1. Burning of the crop residues or allowing farm animals to graze on it kills the overwintering stages i.e larvae and pupae of stem borer.

2. Spray 1.5 ltrs Endosulfan 35 EC in 1000 ltrs of water/ha after 15 DAS( Days After Sowing).

3. Apply 4% Endosulfan or Savin granules in  the leaf  whorl after 30 DAS.

(b) Army Worm (Mythimna separate) :

Symptoms : the outbreak of this pest occurs suddenly and farmers generally notice it after it has already caused considerable damage. The caterpillars generally feed at night and hide in whorl of plants during day. The caterpillars march from field to field and voraciously feed on foliage. They appear after the heavy rains or early floods.

Management :

  1. Collection and destruction of grown up larvae.

2. Spraying Endosulfan 35 EC (0.07%) or whorl application of Carbofuram 3G @ 5 - 6 granules/whorl at 25 to 30 Days after germination effectively checks army worm. 

III. Mustard:

(a) Mustard Saw Fly (Athalia lugens proxima)

Symptoms : the larvae feed on flower and tender parts of plant resulting in lower yield. It appears in the last week of October and remains active upto march.

Management : Dusting with 2% Methyl Parathion dust @ 2025 Kg / ha controls the pest effectively or spray the crop with 0.05% Malathion 50 EC. Do not pluck the leaves within 7 days after spraying.